Tip Burn









(Septoria Leaf Spot)[Tip Burn]
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Also called septoria leaf spot, this fungal disease appears in cool, wet weather in spring and fall. Bermuda and most cool-season grasses are susceptible. Blade tips turn pale yellow to gray, with tiny black dots and red or yellow margins. Mowing removes diseased tips; fungicides are an option, too.







Snow Molds  Fusarium Patch
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Snow molds show up in at least two forms; both prosper in wet, cold weather, especially if grass remains soaked for long periods. Gray snow mold causes irregular dead, bleached patches up to 2 feet across; gray mold is visible on the grass. Pink snow mold produces circular, light brown patches, sometimes blotched with pink fungus. 
Affected grass pulls up easily. To correct the problem, aerate the lawn, improve drainage, avoid high-nitrogen fertilizer late in fall, and reduce snow pileup.






Slime Molds
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Unsightly but harmless, this type of fungal growth is found in the East and on the Pacific Coast; it flourishes in humid conditions on all types of lawns, After irrigation or a heavy rain, affected grass blades are covered with tiny, powdery balls that may be bluish gray, black, or yellow. The fungi feed on decaying matter in the soil; they damage grass by blocking light, causing infected areas to yellow. To correct the problem, hose or sweep grass clean.


Rust (on lawns)[Rust (on lawns)]
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Typically infects Blue, Bermuda, St. Augustine and Rye Grass during the summer and fall, causing a distinctive orange rust-like appearance. The spores are easily spread by tools and foot traffic.

Red Thread
[Red Thread]
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Red Thread Disease is a fungal infection found on lawns and other turfed areas. It is caused by the corticioid fungus Laetisaria fuciformis and has two separate stages. The stage that gives the infection its name is characterized by very thin, red, needle-like strands extending from the grass blade. The other stage is visible as small, pink, cotton wool-like mycelium, found where the blades meet. It is common when both warmth and humidity are high.

The first signs of infection are small irregular patches of brown/yellowing grass. Upon closer inspection, either the tiny red needles or the pink fluffy mycelium will be visible. As the infection spreads, the small patches will join to form large brown areas.

Poor Lawn/Turf Damage
[Poor Lawn/Turf Damage]
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BurnOutSpot Magic Grass Seed
 
Aerate the lawn. Proper fertilizing, try using our 4Phase Dura-Turf program starting in spring to fall.


Leaf Spot (Lawns)[Leaf Spot (Lawns)]
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This condition causes patches of thin, brown grass; the blades have small oval spots with bright red centers and darker borders. Most common on bluegrass and rye grass, leaf spot is caused by various fungi (some formerly known as helminthosporia leaf spot fungi). Use a fungicide when you first notice damage. Too-lush lawns and those under stress from excessive water or fertilizer, short mowing, and thatch are most susceptible.


Leaf Smut

(Stripe Leaf Smut)[Leaf Smut]
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Bonide Solutions:
BurnOutINFUSE®
 
Will cause spots that develop on the plant/grass blades, and it will be yellow. The yellowish streaks may appear between the veins of the blades, and the lawn may appear clumpy or patchy. In the worst form, it can lead to patchy death and browning of a lawn. Drought conditions and heat stress can speed up a lawns death. As the grass plant dies from one cause or another, smut spores form in the dead and dying grass blades. These are the survival form of the fungus, and they are black in color. Most home owner fined them unsightly as they spread by wind and water and may lie dormant in the winter for up to three years.


Fairy Rings[Fairy Rings]
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INFUSE® Lawn & Landscape...
 
Rings of dark green grass, often bordered with small tan mushrooms, are clear signs of this condition. Areas of dead growth may appear inside the rings. Fairy rings thrive in mild, moist weather. Because the fungi grow on organic matter in the soil, they don’t harm the grass directly, but they may restrict water flow. To correct the problem, soak the rings with water every day for a month, remove thatch and aerate the lawn, and fertilize. By greening up the rest of the grass, you’ll obscure the rings.

Burrweed, Field

(grassburs)[Burrweed, Field]
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Field burrs (grassburs) are generally not a problem in well maintained lawn areas. With proper fertilization, mowing and watering, you can produce a lawn that is dense enough to prevent field burrs (grassbur)s from becoming a problem that will form other lawn disease issue. But, if field burrs (grassburs) do become a problem there are several effective herbicides that can be used to control this particular weed. The most effective and efficient method of control is to use a pre-emergent herbicide.


Brown Patch[Brown Patch]
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Bon-Neem II® ConcINFUSE®INFUSE® Lawn & Landscape...
 
Attacks fescues, bluegrass, centipede-grass, rye-grass, St. Augustine, bent and zoysaiagrass during the spring and fall. Causes small (silver dollar sized) spots of tan/brown. These spots can eventually merge to infect large areas.

Large brown-patch is nocturnal in its habits and thrives
best during hot, muggy nights. It makes its appearance in circular, smokylooking spots six to eight inches in diameter. The grass in these spots have
at first a cooked appearance as if scalded with hot water. A close examination reveals a fine cobwebby growth on the outer margins of the spots.
Given a few hours of hot sunshine, the spots turn brown, hence the name "brown-patch." If no remedy is applied and the weather is favorable, some of these spots may spread in the course of a few nights over an entire green.

Anthracnose (on Lawns)
[Anthracnose (on Lawns)]
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Attacks any turf grass, but primarily bluegrass and centipede grass in the summer and fall. Causes irregular sized tan, brown or reddish-brown patches of grass ranging in size from several inches to several yards. Can kill turf if left untreated.

Anthracnose appears in the lawn as irregular patches of brown grass, 2 to 12 inches (5 - 30 cm) in diameter. Brown or tan blotches are present on the leaves. Black, spiky fruiting structures (acervuli) occur on dead grass blades and are key to identifying this disease. The older growth is affected in advance of newly developed leaves. The new growth may remain green.


Angular Leaf Spots
[Angular Leaf Spots]
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Angular leaf spot seen on plants can be caused by several bacteria that survive in seeds and plant debris, Symptoms first appear as small, water-soaked spots on leaves, but spread rapidly when conditions are moist and temperatures are between 75 and 82 degrees F. Spots will expand until they fill the entire area between leaf veins, but do not cross over, creating a angular appearance on larger leaves. Older spots may dry out and tear, leaving holes behind.



Anthracnose (on plants)[Anthracnose (on plants)]
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The name "anthracnose" encompasses numerous diseases caused by fungi that flourish in wet weather; each fungus attacks only a narrow range of plants. Prevalent in the eastern and central United States, anthracnose diseases are characterized by cankers (sunken lesions) on leaves, fruit, and stems. Spore masses, which look like light pink slime, frequently ooze from the cankers. The spores are spread by wind and rain, as well as by gardeners handling wet plants.
Anthracnose is also carried in infected seeds.

Target: Beans, cucurbits, and other vegetables; dogwood, ash, elm, maple, oak, sycamore, and other trees.

Damage: Cankers form on plant parts. Infected leaves often drop prematurely; diseased stems and twigs die back.

Control: Fungicides

Notes: Use certified disease-free seeds grown in the United States. Avoid working among wet plants, Prune out infected branches.

Bacterial Wilt[Bacterial Wilt]
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Incurable and always fatal, this disease is caused by various soil-borne bacteria that break down a plant’s cells, producing debris that clogs the water conducting vessels. Wilted plants may partially recover at night, making you think they simply need water—but watering won’t help. The bacteria are often spread by infected seeds or transmitted by certain insects (cucumber beetles and flea beetles, for example) during feeding. As a definitive test for bacterial wilt, cut a stem in two; put the cut ends together and squeeze, then pull the pieces apart again. If a white, mucus-like thread forms, it’s too late to save the plant, Sometimes you’ll see the telltale gummy material oozing on its own from cracks in stems and leaves. Wilt-causing bacteria can survive in the soil for many years.

Target: Many vegetables (especially cucurbits, corn, and tomato family crops), flowers, and other non-woody plants.

Damage: Plants wilt and dry up—individual leaves first, then shoots and larger branches. Young stems or vines die quickly, older ones more slowly.

Control: Resistant varieties, sanitation, controlling the insects that spread the disease, like cucumber beetles. 

Notes: Remove and destroy diseased plants, then wash your hands thoroughly and disinfect all tools in a solution of nine parts water to one part bleach or rubbing alcohol.


Black Spot[Black Spot]
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The characteristic black spots on infected leaves are patches of fungus, not dead tissue. The organism attacks only roses; it survives on canes and fallen leaves, then spreads easily during misty, foggy, or rainy weather. Black spot is common in regions where summer weather is warm and humid.

Target: Roses.

Damage: Roughly circular black spots with ragged yellowish borders appear on leaves. In severe cases, defoliation occurs.

Control: Fungicides, disease control

Notes: Water early in the day; avoid working among wet plants. Remove and destroy infected leaves.


Blight, Early[Blight, Early]
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Early blight (sometimes called target spot) is a fungal disease that most often affects tomatoes and potatoes. It starts by causing distortion of the new growth, followed by brown or black spots. Gradually the whole plant withers, yellows and dies. 

Target: Potatoes, tomatoes and other similar plants.

Damage: Causes distorted growth. withering and plant death. 

Control: Fungicides, proper plant maintenance and removal of dead plant matter. 


Notes: The disease is difficult to treat once established, but its entry into the plant can be prevented by spraying with a protective fungicide. Early blight often occurs during humid weather and is most likely to attack plants under stress. Remove dead or damaged leaves and make sure there’s good air movement around the plant.



Blight, Late[Blight, Tomato]
[Blight, Late]
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Late blight is caused by crops that are left in the ground from the previous year's harvest, in cull piles, soil or infected volunteer plants and can spread rapidly in warm and wet conditions on new crops. This can have devastating effects by destroying entire crops. 

Target: Mainly potatoes and tomatoes but may spread to other crops. 

Damage: Dark blotches on leaf tips and plant tips, white mold under leaves. The plant may collapse leaving a foul smelling odor. It may also destroy your entire crop and your neighbors as well if left alone.

Control: Fungicides as a preventive as well as a treatment. 

Note: Late Blight is still a difficult disease to control today by ordinary methods, because the oomycete that causes late blight produces so many spores, and the spores can travel long distances through the air, it is very important that everyone who grows potatoes or tomatoes is able to identify late blight and know how to control it, to avoid being a source of spores that infect potatoes and tomatoes in neighboring gardens and commercial fields.


Botrytis[Botrytis]
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Bonide Solutions:
Bon-Neem II® ConcNeem Oil
 
Botrytis blight (Gray mold rot) is a common disease on plants, especially nonwoody plants, grown under humid conditions. The fungus which causes the disease, Botrytis cinerea.

See Gray Mold


Brown Rot of Stone Fruit[Brown Rot of Stone Fruit]
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Spread by wind and rain, this fungal disease enters the blossoms of fruit trees, then moves down the twigs. It survives on infected twigs and on mummies (shriveled fruit) to reinfect the tree the following year.

Target: Apricot, nectarine, peach, plum, and other
 stone fruits.

Control: Fungicides, pruning, bird prevention (see repellents) 

Damage: Blossoms wilt and decay; twigs crack and ooze sap. Fruit shows soft, brown spots, which may enlarge, rot, and become covered with spores.

Notes: Use netting to control birds, since wounds pecked in fruit can set the stage for infection. Destroy fallen fruit and leaves; pick rotten or shriveled fruit still on the tree, Prune to remove blighted twigs and to admit sunlight and improve air circulation. Spray with a fungicide during bloom; to prevent fruit rot, you can spray again 2 to 3 weeks before harvest.



Brown Spot
(on Rice)[Brown Spot]
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Bonide Solutions:
INFUSE®
 
Brown spot is caused by a fungus with both an asexual and a sexual stage.

The disease can attack at all crop/plant development stages. The fungus infects the leaves, leaf sheath, panicle branches, and spikelet’s. The disease causes seedling blight, with small, circular, yellow brown or brown lesions that may girdle the sheath of the emerging leaf tip and distort primary and secondary leaves. Typical brown spot symptoms are observed at tilling stage and beyond; small and circular foliar lesions that are initially dark brown to purple-brown. These lesions are circular to oval with a light brown lesions which are often surrounded by a brown or yellow-brown halo, which is a toxin produced by the pathogen.

(Scientific Name - COCHLIOBOLUS MIYABEANUS)

Cercospora, Leaf Spot[Cercospora, Leaf Spot]
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Circular brown spots begin occurring on the older, lower leaves in late June and July. The leaves begin to turn bright yellow, orange or red with dark small spots and fall off the tree. As the summer progresses, many infected trees will have dropped all but their newest leaves.
Fungicide treatments should be started in early summer when the spots are first noticed and continued every one to two week or every 7 to 14 days when the weather is warm and wet.

Crown Gall[Crown Gall]
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Tumor-like growths near the soil line on a plants roots of stem are telltale signs of this bacterial disease. Plants aren't always seriously harmed, but they often look horrid. The bacteria can survive in the soil or on dead tissue for 2 to 3 years.

Target: Rose-family plants, chrysanthemums, marigolds, euonymus, and many other plants.

Damage: Plants are usually weakened or stunted. Even if the galls don’t damage the host plant directly, they may split apart and invite attack by other pests.

Control: Resistant varieties or treated plants, soil solarization. Lawn granules. 

Notes: Ask for plants treated with the microbial pesticide Agrobacterium radiobacter, or buy the pesticide from a garden supplier and apply it yourself. Avoid wounding plants when cultivating the soil around them. Destroy infected plants. Remove surrounding soil and replace with clean soil

Damping-Off[Damping-Off]
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Present in almost all soils, the various organisms referred to as damping-off fungi can kill seedlings sometimes even before they emerge, and rot potato seed pieces. Healthy seedlings resist infection, though, and plants generally become less vulnerable with age. Over-watering and poor air circulation foster the growth of damping-off fungi, and plants are more susceptible to the disease in wet, poorly drained, cold soils with a high nitrogen content.

Target: Seeds, young plants.

Damage: Seedlings fail to sprout; or they may die soon after emerging.

Control: proper drainage, planting, and watering.

Notes: The fresher the seeds, the less likely they are to fall victim to the disease. You may also want to try seeds treated with a fungicide. Plant seeds when the soil temperature favors growth; set them at the right depth, leaving adequate space between seeds. Don’t over-water, and hold off on fertilizing until seedlings have true leaves (not just initial seed leaves). To improve your chances of success, you can start seeds indoors in a sterile planting mix, then transplant the seedlings outdoors. Sanitize your propagation tools, pots, and flats in a solution of nine parts water to one part bleach or rubbing alcohol.

Downy Mildew[Downy Mildew]
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Each of the many fungi causing downy mildew attacks a narrow range of hosts. Spread by wind, rain, and infected seeds, these fungi all require wet conditions, and most must also have cool temperatures (the exception is downy mildew of cucurbits, which can germinate at temperatures as high as 90°F).

Target: Many plants, including, snap-dragons, pansies, roses, marigolds, strawberries, grapes, and most vegetables.

Damage: Leaves show gray, white, or purplish fuzz on their undersides, yellow blotches on the top surfaces.

Control: Fungicides

Notes: Keep foliage as dry as possible.

Dutch Elm Disease[Dutch Elm Disease]
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The tall, stately elms once graced American streets have been devastated by this fungus disease. The "Dutch" in the name refers to the nationality of the botanist who discovered the fungus. For years confined to the East and Midwest, the disease spread slowly across the country, reaching the West in the 1970s.
Dutch elm disease kills by clogging a tree's water conducting tissue. It's transmitted by the elm bark beetle, and can also move from infected trees to nearby healthy ones when the roots rub against each other, Chinese, Siberian, and a few other Asian elm species are not susceptible, and plant breeders are working to develop new resistant varieties with the majestic shape of the American elm.

Target: American and European elms.

Damage: The leaves of one or several branches wilt, turn yellow, and drop; then the wood, and eventually the entire tree, dies as well.

Control: Resistant varieties, controlling bark beetles, proper pruning.

Notes: Maintaining a healthy tree is the best way to discourage bark beetles.
Once a tree is infected, there’s no cure.
Remove and destroy diseased wood to keep the fungus from spreading.

Fireblight[Fireblight]
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Bonide Solutions:
Copper Fungicide
 
A bacterial disease, fireblight affects only members of the rose family. The infection enters through the blossoms, then spreads by pollenizing insects and splashing water from rain or sprinklers. Fire-blight is favored by temperatures above 60°F and high humidity caused by rain, dew, fog, or irrigation. The bacteria survive in blighted twigs and cankers.

Target: Pear and quince are most susceptible; apple, crabapple, pyracantha, hawthorn, spirea, cotoneaster, toyon, and mountain ash are know to be damaged.

Damage: leaves, shoots, and developing fruit wilt and blacken as if scorched by fire. Dark, sunken cankers may form in large branches.

Control: Streptomycin. fungicides, Pruning. 

Notes: Prune off diseased growth, making cuts at least 6 inches below the infection on the smaller branches, at least 12 inches below blighted areas on the larger limbs. After each cut, disinfect pruners in a solution of nine parts water to one part bleach or rubbing alcohol. Apply a fungicide or streptomycin when about 10 percent of the flowers are in bloom; repeat at 4 or 5 day intervals until bloom ends.


Fusarium Wilt[Fusarium Wilt]
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Most active in warm soils, this soil-borne fungal disease plugs a plant's water conducting vessels, Each of the many fusarium strains attacks a narrow range of hosts; the afflicted plants are primarily herbaceous rather than woody. Spores can survive in the soil for about 10 years.

Target: Many plants, although each strain is specific to only a few hosts.

Damage: Leaves and stems wilt, turn yellow, and eventually die. A plant may initially show symptoms on just one side or one branch.

Control: Resistant varieties, soil solarization, crop rotation, timed plantings, sanitation. 

Notes: Because the spores can survive so long in the soil, a very lengthy rotation is needed. Plant peas and other cool season crops as early as possible, so the plants can mature before the fungi become active. Dig up and destroy infected plants. Remove infected soil and replace with clean soil.

Gray Mold (Botrytis Blight)[Gray Mold (Botrytis Blight)]
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The gray mold that afflicts garden plants is the very same organism you'll often see on elderly boxed strawberries at the supermarket. Also known as botrytis blight, the disease is caused by a fungus that thrives in shady conditions and crowded plantings; it's especially common in cool, humid climates. The spores are spread by wind and water. Gray mold usually begins on plant debris and old plant tissue (such as spent flowers and overripe fruit), then invades actively growing tissue.

Target: Many flowers, fruits, and vegetables.

Damage: Soft tan to brown blotches form on plant parts, then become covered with a coarse, grayish mold. The mold may turn slimy as the tissue beneath it rots.

Control: Good air circulation. fungicides

Notes: Water early in the day, so plants have time to dry by nightfall. Remove dead leaves and flowers to eliminate possible breeding grounds for infection; pick off diseased tissue.


Leaf Spot[Leaf Spot]
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Leaf Spot is a common descriptive term applied to a number of diseases affecting the foliage of ornamental and shade trees. The majority of the leaf spots are caused by a variety of fungal pathogens but some are caused by bacteria. Anthracnose is a term for a group of loosely related fungal diseases that often cause irregular blotches on leaves. For more specific information about anthracnose see the separate disease profile on anthracnose.
The organisms that cause leaf spots survive in fallen infected leaves and twigs. Some may remain in dead twigs on the tree. 

Target: All species of shrub can potentially develop leaf spots, but some species are more susceptible than others.

Damage: Spots on foliage. The spots will vary in size and color depending on the plant affected the specific organism involved, and the stage of development. Spots are most often brownish, but may be tan or black. Concentric rings or dark margin around the spot may be present. Fungal bodies may appear as black dots in the center of the spots. Over time the spots may combine to form blotches. Spots or blotches that are angular and located around the veins are generally referred to as anthracnose (see disease profile on anthracnose). Leaves may yellow and drop prematurely.

Control: Fungicide, pruning, flower care sprays. 

Notes: Remove infected leaves and dead twigs. Keep foliage dry. Avoid overhead watering. Prune for good air circulation.


Mosaic Viruses[Mosaic Viruses]
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This virus infects more than 150 types of plants, including many fruits, vegetables, and flowers. It is characterized by leaves mottled with yellow, white, and light and dark green spots or streaks. Some of the most commonly infected plants include tomatoes, potatoes, squash, and cucumbers. But will infect others.

Depending on environmental conditions, mosaic symptoms can range from mild to severe and be visible on both leaves and fruit. The younger the plant is infected, the more severe the symptoms as the plant grows and ages. In some cases, plants infected at the seedling stage may collapse and die. Plants infected at the flowering stage may not set fruit or young fruits may drop. If plants are older or grown when infected they do not show severe mosaic and can still produce eatable fruit.

No chemical products are available to cure or protect plants. The best factor in controlling and reducing infection is to practice sanitation. Remove any infected plants, including the roots, Also discard any plants near those affected.

Like all viruses, mosaics are incurable- although sometimes they simply create interestingly patterned leaves without significantly reducing a plant's vigor.

Damage: Leaves are mottled or streaked. Other possible symptoms include distorted or stunted growth, reduced yield, and poor fruit quality.

Control: Resistant varieties, certified disease-free stock, crop rotation, weeding, destroying infected plants.

Notes: Resistant varieties may be available for certain crops. Control weeds, since many serve as reservoirs for viruses. To avoid spreading tobacco mosaic virus, don’t smoke around tomato-family plants and wash your hands before touching them. 

Mummy Berry[Mummy Berry]
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Mummies are just the beginning of infection. The mummies are only part of what takes place. The fungus overwinters in these infected berries that have fallen to the ground. In the spring, these mummies ‘sprout’ small, mushroom looking structures, with little cups on the end. These are called apothecia, and they produce spores tons of them.
The spores spread by wind over fairly long distances. When they land on leaf buds and young shoots, it only takes a few hours or days for ‘primary infection’ to occur, depending on leaf wetness and temperature. Green tissue has to be present for infection. The ideal condition for infection is cool and wet (a common scenario now and early spring). About a week or two after becoming infected, the leaves and shoots wilt and turn brown. This damage can easily be mistaken for frost injury. If flowers are present they can sometimes become blighted, also.
Prevention of mummy berry establishment is key for managing the disease clean the ground. After harvest, and if possible, clean up dropped fruit. Prior to bud break, shallow cultivation, no deeper than one inch, underneath bushes will prevent spore cup development.


Oak Root Fungus[Oak Root Fungus]
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Also called armillaria, shoestring, or mushroom root rot, this disease is active in wet soils, the fungus invades the roots of many plants. Symptoms of the disease vary. The fungus: creamy white, fan-shaped layers, with a strong mushroom odor, growing beneath the bark near or below the soil level. Clusters of honey- colored mushrooms may appear around the base of the tree in fall or winter.
Oak root fungus doesn't spread through the soil; it moves from one tree to another when healthy roots come into contact with infected ones. It can survive for at least 30 years in dead roots below ground.

Target: Primarily woody plants, especially oaks and fruit trees.

Damage: The trunk is girdled. Dull, yellowed, or wilted foliage is usually the first sign of trouble; infected trees usually die back slowly.

Control: Resistant plants, landscape granules.

Notes: There is no cure. Remove dead or badly stricken plants, trying to dig out as much of the roots as possible. You may be able to prolong the life of a plant by uncovering the infected root crown, then leaving it exposed to air and giving little or no water.


Oak Wilt[Oak Wilt]
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This deadly fungal disease, which blocks a tree's water-conducting vessels, has killed millions of oaks east of the Rockies, especially in Texas and the Great Lakes states. The fungus is spread by oak bark beetles and by contact between healthy and infected roots.

Target: Oaks

Damage: Starting from the treetop down, leaves wilt turn dull, curl, dry, and drop. The tree eventually dies.

Control: Resistant varieties, controlling bark beetles. using a pruning sealer helps. 

Notes: There is no cure. Remove and destroy infected trees, including stumps. Avoid pruning in spring, when bark beetles are most active. If a tree is wounded, paint over the wound immediately to deter beetles from entering. Certain fungicides can be injected into healthy trees as a preventive; consult a tree care specialist.

Peach Leaf Curl[Peach Leaf Curl]
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Bonide Solutions:
Copper FungicideFung-onil®Fung-onil® Concentrate
 
Most active during cool, rainy springs, this fungal disease slowly weakens infected trees. If left unchecked, afflicted leaves show a coating of white spores; these can reinfect the host tree the following year.

Target: Peach, nectarine.

Damage: Midribs thicken, causing the leaves to pucker and curl, leaves are tinged with red or yellow and drop early. Fruiting is poor; fruit may be spotted. Repeated infections cause branches to die back.

Control: Sanitation, fungicide

Notes: Apply fungicide in late winter, before new growth appears. You can also control infection by keeping trees covered with plastic film until the leaves unfurl (this is easiest to do with genetic dwarf varieties). Pick off and destroy infected leaves.

Powdery Mildew[Powdery Mildew]
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Bon-Neem II® ConcCitrus, Fruit, & Nut Orch...Copper FungicideCopper Fungicide RTUFruit Tree & Plant GuardGarden DustMancozeb® Concentrate Fl...Neem OilRose Rx® 3-in-1Rose ShieldSulfur Plant FungicideTomato & Vegetable 3-in-1
 
While most fungi thrive in moist surroundings, the organisms causing powdery mildew flourish in dry conditions; they also prefer warm days, cool nights, and shade. The various members of the group attack different hosts and survive from year to year on perennial plants.

Target: Many plants like cucurbits, roses, phlox, dahlias, beans, peas, grapes, small fruits and fruit trees, euonymus, and bluegrass lawns.

Damage: Gray or white circular patches appear on leaves; then whole leaves become powdery white and distorted. Infected leaves may drop, and the entire plant may be weakened or killed. The flavor of peas, squash, and melons may be affected.

Control: Resistant varieties, good air circulation, sanitation, pruning, misting, fungicides.

Notes: Since dry air favors the disease, mist susceptible plants. Spray with fungicide when symptoms first appear. Prune off and destroy infected tissue.

Rust (on plants)[Rust (on plants)]
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Bonide Solutions:
Bon-Neem II® ConcCitrus, Fruit, & Nut Orch...Copper FungicideCopper Fungicide RTUDragoon Dust with copperFruit Tree & Plant GuardFung-onil®Fung-onil® ConcentrateGarden DustINFUSE®Neem OilRose Rx® 3-in-1Rose ShieldSulfur Plant Fungicide
 
Most of the fungi known as "rust" attack ornamentals. Each is specific to a certain type of plant, although some cedar apple rust, for example, require two hosts. The spores are spread by wind and splashing water.

Target: Many plants, including roses, hollyhocks, and snapdragons; lawns.

Damage: Rust first appears as pustules on the undersides of leaves; the lesions are usually orange-yellow in color, but may also be brown or purple. Eventually, the upper leaf surfaces become mottled with yellow. Severely infected plants are stunted and may die.

Control: Resistant varieties, sanitation, good air circulation, and fungicides. 

Notes: Clean up fallen debris; remove rust-infected leaves remaining on plants. Water overhead only in the morning on sunny days.

Scab[Scab]
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Bonide Solutions:
Bon-Neem II® ConcCaptan® Fruit & Ornament...Citrus, Fruit, & Nut Orch...Fruit Tree & Plant GuardFruit Tree Spray Concentr...Fung-onil®Fung-onil® ConcentrateINFUSE®Neem OilRose Rx® 3-in-1Rose ShieldSulfur Plant Fungicide
 
This fungus survives the dormant season in the infected leaves and twigs. Black fruiting structures develop in leaves from the previous season during late winter and early spring. Release of spores occurs during wet periods in the spring and they infect young leaves, shoots, and fruit. One to three weeks after infection velvet-like, dark-green fruiting structures and spores form. The conidia infect new growth if conditions are wet for about six hours and the air temperature is mild. Repeating episodes of spore release and infection occur throughout the growing season. Moist spring and early summer weather accompanied by cool temperatures favors this disease.

Target: Infects apple, crabapple, several species of mountain ash, cotoneaster and pear trees.

Damage: Leaves, flowers, fruit and green twigs are susceptible to infection. The first symptoms are water soaked lesions that turn olive green to dark gray and develop a velvety appearance. Eventually infected leaves turn yellow and drop from the tree prematurely, leading to completely defoliated trees by mid to late august.

Control: Fungicides, fruit tree sprays, proper pruning.

Notes: Remove and dispose of infected leaves near the tree during and after the growing season. This will reduce but not eliminate inoculum available for infection. Prune rapidly growing water sprouts emerging from branches, since many of these water sprouts apple scab lesions on them. In addition, prune to increase air circulation and sunlight penetration into the canopy, which promotes drying of foliage. To minimize disease problems, the best time to prune is in the late winter or very early spring before new growth starts. Otherwise, prune when the bark and weather conditions are dry. Consider growing varieties or species of apple, crabapple, and mountain ash that are resistant to apple scab.

Shot Hole
(Coryneum Blight)[Shot Hole]
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Bonide Solutions:
Captan® Fruit & Ornament...Copper FungicideFruit Tree & Plant GuardGarden DustSulfur Plant Fungicide
 
Coryneum blight also called Shot hole diease affects peaches, apricots and sweet cherries and other fruit trees. Some flowering ornamental trees can be affected as well. Since little can be done to control shot hole fungus once the trees have been infected, prevention is essential in treating shot hole disease.
Disease takes place in spring and early summer and in cool, wet periods prior to harvest. 
Blight is difficult to eradicate because the fungus in infected buds and twigs may produce spores for two to three years. 
Control requires chemical sprays and removal of dead wood over a three-year period.
Disease thrives in wet conditions, commonly overwinters
Important to thoroughly inspect trees after leaf fall for any symptoms, signs will show most then
Applying All Season Oil Spray – Bonide Copper Fungicide – in late fall and early spring for control.


Soft Rot[Soft Rot]
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Bonide Solutions:
Copper Fungicide RTU
 
Soft Rot
Causes infections that are found on the plant tissues that have been weakened, invaded or killed by pathogens or by mechanical means. Soft rot in tubers is favored by immaturity, wounding, invasion by other pathogens, warm tuber and storage temperatures, standing water and low or no oxygen.

Sooty Mold[Sooty Mold]
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Bonide Solutions:
All Seasons®Annual™ Tree & ShrubSystemic Insect ControlTotal Pest Control, Outdo...
 
As you might guess from the name, this mold forms a black coating on the leaves of afflicted plants. The organism lives on a plant's natural secretions and on honeydew, the plant sap excreted by aphids, leaf-hoppers, mealybugs, psyllids, scale insects, and white-flies. Cool, moist conditions encourage sooty mold.

Target: All plants.

Damage: Sooty mold harms plants by blocking light to the leaves, thus hindering photosynthesis.

Control: Controlling honeydew-producing Insects, cleaning the plant.

Notes: You can wipe or hose the mold from plants; rain will also remove it.

Verticillium Wilt[Verticillium Wilt]
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Bonide Solutions:
 
A widespread fungus, verticillium is a soil-borne organism that plugs water-conducting vessels. Though it thrives in cool, moist soils, it usually doesn't reveal its presence until the weather turns warm and dry.

Target: More than 200 plant species, including tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, and Japanese maple.

Damage: One branch or one side of a plant typically wilts. The leaves yellow starting from the edges and progressing inward; then they turn brown and die. The wilt progresses upward or outward from the base of the plant or branch; the tissue inside dead branches is discolored. Often the entire plant dies.

Control: Resistant Plants, soil solarization, new soil, reducing nitrogen fertilizer, pruning. 

Notes: Don’t till before solarizing; the fungus is usually in the top 6 inches of soil, and that’s about how far the effects of solarization go. As an alternative to solarization, use clean, new soil in raised beds or containers. Crop rotation is ineffective, since the fungus can survive in the soil for 20 years. Excess nitrogen favors verticillium wilt, so cut back on nitrogen use. Pruning infected limbs may help a stricken tree recover. Maintain adequate soil moisture.

Water Mold Root Rot[Water Mold Root Rot]
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Bonide Solutions:
 
Members of this group of fungi (various species of Phytophthora and Pythium) thrive when water stands too long around plant roots. The rot invades the roots and moves up the stems, sometimes girdling them at or below ground level. A dark discoloration is usually visible between healthy and infected tissue. The disease is very common in irrigated areas of California and the arid Southwest.

Target: Many plants.

Damage: Leaf color usually dulls; leaves may yellow and wilt. The plant loses vigor and sometimes dies, either quickly or over the course of months.

Control: Soil solarization, improving drainage, proper planting and watering.

Notes: There is no cure, so concentrate on prevention. Plant at the right depth in well-drained soil; provide only enough moisture for healthy growth.
Scotts Products


[Scotts ORTHO Bug-Geta 4.25lb Snail & Slug Killer]
Item # SC046510        $25.99

[Scotts ORTHO Bug B Gon 4lb Granular Rose & Flower Insect Killer Plus Miracle-Gro Plant Food]

Item # SC9900510        $12.99
Scotts® ORTHO® Bug B Gon® 4lb Granular Rose & Flower Insect Killer Plus Miracle-Gro® Plant Food
Up to eight weeks of insect protection and 8 weeks of Miracle-Gro® feeding. Systemic protection against damage from Japanese beetles, aphids, thrips, whiteflies, scale and other listed insects. Can be used in containers.

[IGC GARDEN INSECT KILLER 32 OZ 12/CS]
Item # SC1600710        $8.99
Provides up to four week control against damaging insects. Kills over 100 bugs. Fast acting, kills insects by contact and systemically.



[Preen 31.3lb Garden Weed Preventer]
Item # grv2463802        $64.99

Preen® 31.3lb Garden Weed Preventer
Proven effective with 180 varieties of bulbs, flowers, roses, shrubs, trees and vegetables. Stops weeds before they start. Apply just once and enjoy weed-free gardens for up to 14 weeks. Ready to use granular form requires no measuring or mixing.


Item # BND141        $9.99
Bonide® 1lb Dust Sulfur Plant Fungicide
Sulfur 90%. A specially prepared micronic sulfur suitable for use as a dust or spray. The fine particle size gives better coverage, adhesion and disease control. This product controls a large number of diseases on fruits, vegetables and various ornamentals. Approved for organic gardening. Now labeled for chiggers.


Item # BND166        $9.99
Bonide® 16oz Conc GardenRich® Rot-Stop® Tomato Blossom End Rot
Corrects calcium deficiency. Controls blossom end rot on tomatoes and other vegetables. Apply to developing fruit and foliage after periods of heavy rain or rapid growth. Mix 4 tbsp per gallon.

Item # BND771        $9.99 1 lb dust
Item # BND772        $19.99 4 lb dust
Bonide® 1lb Dust Copper Fungicide
Copper formulations protects a wide range of plants from turf to veggies, to fruit and flowers from a host of listed diseases. Great for Blight! Suitable for organic gardening.

Item # BND171        $16.99
Bonide® 8oz Conc Captan® Fruit & Ornamental WP
50.0% Captan. Multipurpose fungicide for ornamentals and fruits. Controls damping-off, powdery mildew, botrytis blossom blight, anthracnose, rust, brown rots, early blight and late blight on various plants. Unlike many other fungicides, Captan has never indicated a disease resistance problem!

Item # BND880        $19.99 16oz
Item # BND881        $34.99 32oz
Item # BND883        $9.99 Spray
Bonide®  Conc Fung-onil® 
Chlorothalonil 29.6%. Truly all purpose. Controls numerous diseases on roses, flowers and vegetables, fruit and shade trees. Use as little as 1-1/2 teaspoons per gallon.


Item # BND897        $10.99 
Bonide® 32oz RTU Rose Rx® 3-in-1
Contains Neem Oil Insecticide – Miticide – Fungicide/Kills eggs, larvae and adults! For use on roses and flowers as well as fruit, nuts, vegetables, herbs, spices, houseplants, trees and shrubs.

Item # BND912        $9.99 
Copper and Carbaryl makes this an ideal dust for all ornamentals. Controls all major insect and disease pests.


Item # BND026        $15.99
Bonide® 32oz RTU Bon-Neem II® 
Neem plus pyrethrin. A broad spectrum fungicide, insecticide and miticide for control of insects, diseases and mites on vegetables, fruit, nuts, herbs, spices, roses, flowers, shrubs, houseplants and turf grass around the home. Kills stink bugs, boxelder bugs, fungus gnats, to name just a few.

Item # BND024        $22.99

Bonide® 16oz Conc Neem Oil
An all purpose insecticide, miticide, fungicide for organic gardening. Derived from the Neem seed. Use on roses, flowers, vegetables, herbs, spices, houseplants, trees, turf and shrubs. Kills all stages of insects – eggs, larvae and adults. Makes a great dormant spray.



Item # BND022        $12.99
Bonide® 32oz RTU Neem Oil
An all purpose insecticide, miticide, fungicide for organic gardening. Derived from the Neem seed. Use on roses, flowers, vegetables, herbs, spices, houseplants, trees, turf and shrubs. Kills all stages of insects – eggs, larvae and adults. Makes a great dormant spray.

Item # BND1972        $6.99
Bonide® 12pk Beetle Bagger® Japanese Beetle Trap Replacement Lures
Replacement lure for the Beetle Bagger® Japanese Beetle Trap. An irresistible, dual Floral/Pheromone lure that protects over 5000sq ft.
[Bonide 16oz Conc Colorado Potato Beetle Beater]
Item # BND687        $22.99
Bonide® 16oz Conc Colorado Potato Beetle Beater
Contains Spinosad .5%. Controls the tough CO Potato Beetle larvae, as well as selected leaf beetle larvae and adults - naturally. For organic production.
[Bonide 8oz Conc Pyrethrin Garden Insect Spray]
Item # BND857        $16.99

Bonide® 8oz Conc Pyrethrin Garden Insect Spray
Natural Pyrethrin in a concentrated formula for economical, natural, broad spectrum garden insect control. Ideal for vegetables, fruits, flowers and delicateornamentals. Use up to day of harvest.
[Bonide 16oz Conc Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew]
Item # BND252        $22.99
Bonide® 16oz Conc Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew® 
Contains Spinosad. Kills bagworms, borers, beetles, caterpillars, codling moth, gypsy moth, loopers, leaf miners, spider mites, tent caterpillars, thrips and more. Not for sale in AK and HI.
[Bonide 32oz RTS Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew]
Item # BND255        $29.99
Bonide® 32oz RTS Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew® 
Contains Spinosad. Kills bagworms, borers, beetles, caterpillars, codling moth, gypsy moth, loopers, leaf miners, spider mites, tent caterpillars, thrips and more. Not for sale in AK and HI.

[Bonide 32oz RTU Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew]

Item # BND250        $11.99
Bonide® 32oz RTU Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew® 
Contains Spinosad. Kills bagworms, borers, beetles, caterpillars, codling moth, gypsy moth, loopers, leaf miners, spider mites, tent caterpillars, thrips and more. Not for sale in AK and HI.
[Bonide 4lb Dust Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew]
Item # BND258        $9.99

Bonide® 4lb Dust Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew® 
Contains Spinosad. Kills bagworms, borers, beetles, caterpillars, codling moth, gypsy moth, loopers, leaf miners, spider mites, tent caterpillars, thrips and more. Not for sale in AK and HI.
[Bonide 32oz RTU Insecticidal Soap]
Item # BND652        $9.99
Bonide® 32oz RTU Insecticidal Soap
Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids From Plants. Kills insects on contact. Ideal for houseplants, vegetables, flowers, fruits. Formula does not persist in the environment and may be used up to day of harvest. Suitable for organic gardening. Not for sale in AK, HI.
[Bonide 8oz Conc Malathion Insect Control]
Item # BND991        $12.99
Bonide® 8oz Conc Malathion Insect Control
50.0% Cythion. A truly all-purpose insecticide. Labeled for use on fruits, vegetables and ornamentals. Not for sale in AK, CA, HI.
[Bonide Systemic Insect Control 16oz Concentrate]
Item # BND941        $20.99
Bonide® 16oz Conc Systemic Insect Control
Economical, long lasting insect control for ornamental gardens, shrubs and trees. Use as little as 2 tablespoon per gallon. Not for sale in AK, CA, HI. Contains Acephate.
[Bonide 24oz Pellets Slug Magic]
Item # BND904        $14.99
Bonide® 24oz Pellets Slug Magic® 
Iron Phosphate 1.0% Pellets, rain proof formula makes slugs disappear! Can be used around pets and wildlife. Slug Magic can be used in fruit and vegetable gardens up to the day of harvest. 1lb
[Bonide 1lb Pellets Slug Magic]
Item # BND903 1lb        $11.99
Item # BND905 4lb        $24.99

Bonide®  Pellets Slug Magic® 
Iron Phosphate 1.0% Pellets, rain proof formula makes slugs disappear! Can be used around pets and wildlife. Slug Magic can be used in fruit and vegetable gardens up to the day of harvest.

​​​Mikes Nursery and Hydroponic Growing Supplies
199 East Fairmount Ave. 
Lakewood, NY  14750
716-763-1612

Copyright © Mike's Nursery. All rights reserved 1999 to 2017, and still going strong.